Food & Fitness After 50: Clearing the Confusion on Probiotic Supplements

intestinal-gut-bacteria-balancing-microbiomeA friend asked a simple question, “should I take a probiotic supplement?” I wish there was a simple “yes” or “no” answer, as I’m sure that is what she wanted. But, as with many questions in nutrition, the answer is it depends. It depends on:

  • What is the reason for taking a probiotic supplement?
  • Is there a specific health problem that you are trying to alleviate by taking a probiotic supplement?
  • What dietary sources of probiotics are you consuming? And, is your diet rich in not only probiotics, but prebiotics and dietary fiber? Diets high in fat, sugar, and excess alcohol do not promote the good bacteria in our guts, while a diet rich in fiber, fruits, vegetables, pro-and prebiotics contribute to a healthy balance of bacteria in our guts. (For more information on dietary sources of pre-and probiotics, click here and here.)

I had the chance to ask Dr. Anthony Thomas, Director of Scientific Affairs for Jarrow Formulas* to help us  navigate the landscape on probiotic supplements. First, let’s understand that probiotics won’t completely alter your gut microbiome because “probiotics do not sustainably colonize the adult gut, but should be thought of as temporary, transient residents that interact with the body and its microbial ecosystem to influence function and health,” according to Dr. Thomas.

Let’s start with the definition of probiotics:

  • “Live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host” (WHO/FAO definition).

The key words in that sentence, according to Dr. Thomas are live when administered, adequate amounts, and health benefit.

He explained that the probiotic has to be live when you take it. How do you know? “Choose products that include the “Best Used Before Date” date and avoid products that declare potency “at time of manufacture,” as this measurement does not reflect the amount still alive when purchased and consumed. A transparent, quality manufacturer lists the guaranteed minimum number of live cells, measured in CFUs, per serving when stored as recommended and used prior to the “best used before date.” Dr. Thomas goes on to explain that while probiotics don’t really expire, but the number of live cells may not meet label claims if not stored as stated on the label and used beyond that date. The “time at manufacture” almost certainly over represents the quantity of live cells because the normal manufacturing process results in some die-off of live probiotics.

probiotic_identification_graph
Identification chart courtesy of Jarrow Formulas

Adequate amounts mean not only quantity of probiotics in a supplement, but quality. “Probiotics are strain, dose, and condition specific.” Strains should be designated on a supplement label, so you know what you are getting. Dr. Thomas explains, “not all strains perform equally, and more strains are not better, better strains are better.” For example, if looking for a supplement to help with bowel issues, Lactobacillus (genus) plantarum (species) 229v (strain) is clinically proven to reduce bowel discomfort at dosing of 10 to 20 billion live cells daily.” The probiotic identification chart illustrates the difference between genus, species, and strain in a way that is understandable to those of us who might have forgotten what we learned in biology!

And, that leads us to the last part of the definition, health benefits. A probiotic must be studied to know if it conveys a health benefit. If a label simply says something like 40 billion CFU with 16 probiotic strains, it may or may not be clinically relevant. “Don’t be swayed by a large number of colony forming units (CFUs is how probiotics are measured). What you really want is the right strain in the right amounts,” says Dr. Thomas.

There are a lot of resources to help consumers know if a probiotic meets the definition from the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP). It takes some homework to take the guess work out, but if you are going to pay good money for a supplement, isn’t it worth knowing that it has evidence to support it will do what you want it to do?

I think this statement from the ISAPP sums up what we know, “probiotics are not a “cure all” and it is not necessary to take them to be healthy. But they may help you even if you are generally healthy. Probiotics will have different benefits – look for a product with studies that support the benefit you want.”

Dr. Thomas cautions us to be aware of “disingenuous marketing masquerading as education” for some probiotic supplements. A product claiming to be “ancient” might sound impressive, but if the product doesn’t list the strains, 100 billion CFUs per serving is meaningless.

Resources:

To learn more about a specific supplement check out the Clinical Guide to Probiotic Produces Available in the USA to help you understand the evidence supporting a probiotic supplement.

And, here is a link to helpful infographics on probiotics from ISAPP.

*I heard Dr. Thomas speak at a sponsored food and nutrition conference, but I was neither asked nor compensated to write this post.

 

Fit to Eat

“Fit to Eat,” focuses on nutrition concerns of active people and showcases inspiring stories from adults who eat well, move well, and be well. Whether you are in your 50s, 60, 70s, or beyond you will find information to keep you healthy and active.

Food & Fitness After 50: Physical Activity is a Polypill – Say What?

Poly means many and polypharmacy refers to taking many drugs, prescription as well as over the counter, that can bring unwanted problems for older adults. Some people have shoe boxes full of prescription medicines, vitamin supplements, pain relievers, and other dietary supplements claiming to cure all ills. But, what if there was a polypill; one pill that could help us all improve our healthspan? In today’s post, Dr. Bob Murray, co-author of Food & Fitness After 50, lets us in on the secret of a polypill.

This post was written by Dr. Bob Murray

There is little doubt that regular physical activity lengthens our healthspan—the number of years when we are in good health.  Lots of research has made it clear that no medication is more effective than physical activity in helping us stay as healthy as possible for as long as possible.  For that reason, exercise has been referred to as a pollypill —a medication with multiple benefits.

A recent study in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) concluded that all the physical activity we encounter during the course of a normal day has a role in preventing heart disease.  The researchers looked at the daily physical activity habits of 5,861 older women (average age was 78) over a 5-year period and found that even light activity reduced the chances of death from heart disease.

Only about 25% of adults in the U.S. achieve the current recommendations for physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity (or 75 minutes of high-intensity activity) each week.  For anyone who is intimidated by the prospect of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity each week, the notion that all movement counts may well promote more light physical activity during the day.  Let’s hope that’s the case.

Walking, dusting, vacuuming, climbing stairs at home, gardening and lawn work, playing with children and pets, and similar low-intensity activities are part of everyday life for most Americans.  In the JAMA study, the older women engaged in a total of 3 to over 6 hours of light physical activity each day.  Not surprisingly, more physical activity was associated with lower risk of heart disease, a finding that is likely also true for older men, although that likelihood awaits confirmation.

exerciseAny time we get our heart, lungs, and muscles out of their comfort zones—even for a little bit—our bodies benefit.  A quick look at the list of health benefits of physical activity should be enough to convince even the most sedentary person to move more.

  • Lower deaths from all causes
  • Lower risk of heart disease
  • Lower risk of hypertension
  • Lower risk of stroke
  • Lower risk of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Lower risk of breast, colon, and prostate cancers
  • Lower risk of serious falls
  • Lower risk of complications after surgery
  • Lower risk of metabolic syndrome (includes obesity)
  • Lower risk of depression (and reduces the severity of depression)
  • Better memory and cognitive function
  • Better bone health
  • Improved quality of life
  • Greater life expectancy

Wouldn’t it be wonderful if even light physical activity conferred all those same benefits, even if to a lesser extent than more vigorous physical activity?  There is a strong possibility that is the case, although much more research is needed to confirm that educated guess.  What is known is that moving more during the day is a goal we all should embrace.

In general, Americans sit too often for too long.  Research has shown that prolonged sitting increases the risk of heart disease, type 2 Diabetes, and cancer.  Even if we exercise during the day, sitting for hours on end increases our risk of those disorders.  Happily, interrupting prolonged sitting with periodic 5-minute physical activity “snacks” counters the negative aspects of sitting.  Climbing a few flights of stairs, taking a brisk walk, or doing simple calisthenics can be easily accomplished during a 5-minute break.

Physical activity is indeed a polypill that can help us lead longer, happier, healthier lives and the fact that all movement counts helps make it easier for all of us to keep moving toward a longer healthspan.

Dr. Bob Murray is an exercise physiologist and managing principal of a sports science consulting company. His passion for exercise and health began as a physical education teacher and coach, and continues today in his late 60s as an avid swimmer, cyclist, and fitness fan.

Copyright © 2019 [Christine Rosenbloom]. All Rights Reserved.

Food & Fitness After 50: Is 70 the New 40?

“The strong live long!”

ChicagoI recently returned from Chicago from the annual American College of Sports Medicine Health & Fitness Summit. My friend and co-author of Food & Fitness After 50 , Dr. Bob Murray, and I gave a talk titled “Is 70 the New 40?” Since Bob and I are closer to 70 than 65, we say YES to that question!

For those of you who have not yet reached 70, what does it take to feel like you are still 40? And, for those you who have reached your 70th birthday, what does it take to stay on the path to optimal aging?

Here are some key takeaways from our talk as well as some other experts who spoke at the conference, emphasizing what we’ve been saying along….eat well, move well, and be well!

 

#1.  Lift weights. Whether you call it strength or resistance training, maintaining muscle mass is critical to healthy aging. Our muscle mass peaks around age 25 and holds steady until about 40, but then declines about 1% per year until age 65. The loss of strength is even greater…. about 2 to 4% per year. The good news is that we can easily preserve our muscle mass and strength with a couple of bouts of resistance weight training each week.

We all know the exercise guidelines call for 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and “also” strength train two days a week. The word “also” was troubling to key note speaker Dr. Eric Rawson. Adding strength training is almost an afterthought; it would be “nice” to do it, but it doesn’t get the recognition it deserves in preserving health. “There are under-recognized benefits to strength training,” says Dr. Rawson. Strength underpins skill and if you increase strength it helps with overall physical activity.  Think about the ability to climb stairs as an example. It takes leg strength to climb stairs which may be why so many people use escalators or elevators instead of stairs. Dr. Rawson says it’s not that aerobic or endurance exercise isn’t good, it’s just that both aerobic and strength are needed for optimal aging. “If exercise is medicine, then resistance exercise is a gateway drug,” claims Dr. Rawson.Take-the-Stairs-Instead

#2. Weight training has more benefits than building or maintaining muscle. Dr. Stu Phillips elaborated on the health benefits of strength training in his presentation.  He reviewed the most recent evidence showing that resistance training “has health-related benefits that are not dissimilar to those imbued by aerobic exercise.” Strength training reduces the risk for falls and is an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes, some cancers, anxiety and depression. Dr. Bob Murray lists many benefits from strength training in our chapter on getting and maintaining muscle and strength:

  • Stabilizing arthritic joints
  • Improving balance
  • Increasing resting metabolism
  • Increasing social interaction
  • Lowering risk of all-cause mortality
  • Lowering risk of osteoporosis
  • Lowering risk of lower back pain
  • Lowering risk of obesity
  • Accelerated recovery from illness or injury
  • Improved sleep
  • Improved self confidence
  • Enhanced self-esteem

As Dr. Bob likes to say, “The strong live long!”

#3.  Maintain your body weight and if you want to lose weight, stay away from quick weight loss schemes.

I’m a big believer in monitoring your body weight so “weight creep” doesn’t happen. No one gains 30 pounds overnight, but they do gain 1 or 2 pounds a year without realizing it and as the years go by, the pounds add up. When you find yourself wanting to lose weight, the quick weight loss plan du jour seems tempting. But, as we age, weight loss should not be the goal. Instead, “body composition management is more important than weight management to enhance successful aging,” says Dr. Ellen Evans, in her special lecture, “Helping Baby Boomers Stay Functional.”

What Dr. Evans means by managing body composition is that older adults who want to lose weight really want to lose body fat while preserving lean muscle and bone. According to Dr. Evans, “regular physical activity, especially resistance training exercise, in addition to caloric restriction attenuates the loss of muscle and bone mass loss and increasing dietary protein intake enhances this effect.” The idea that we lose lean muscle during weight loss wasn’t new to me, but I never thought about the negative impact of weight loss on bone health. There is no cure for osteoporosis, so we need to do everything we can to preserve bone mass and bone strength as we age.

So, is 70 the new 40? It can be if you manage your body composition, strength train twice a week, and also keep up your aerobic exercise.

Learn more about eating well, moving well, and being well in Food & Fitness After 50, available at Amazon and other book sellers.

Copyright © 2019 [Christine Rosenbloom]. All Rights Reserved.

 

 

Food & Fitness After 50: Research Roundup

Each day dozens of research studies appear in my inbox, peaking this old college professor’s interest. Last week, there were three studies that made me want to take a closer look: one published in an aging journal, one presented at an annual scientific conference, and one animal study in the journal Brain Structure and Function.  Let’s briefly talk about each one and how it might translates from the page to your plate.

Blueberries for Blood Pressure

1200-136890271-blueberriesThe blue color in blueberries is due to the presence of anthocyanins (pronounced ann-though-sigh-a-nins), a sub-group of plant chemicals knows as polyphenols. Fruits and veggies that are deeply colored red, blue, and purple are especially rich in anthocyanins. The study published in the Journals of Gerontology (gerontology is the study of aging) found that eating about a cup of blueberries twice a day lowered blood pressure similar to the lowering from taking common blood pressure meds. The effect on blood pressure was both acute (happened quickly) and chronic (over time). Researchers found that the anthocyanins relaxed blood vessels and reduced the stiffness that occurs in aging blood vessels. As we age, our blood vessels lose their elasticity making it harder to control blood pressure and increasing our risk for heart disease.

What does in mean for you?

Eat more blueberries! One cup of berries, whether fresh or frozen, has about 60 calories, making it a low-calorie addition to your diet. What it doesn’t mean is taking a blueberry concentrate supplement (yes, they do exist). Researchers note that blueberries are also rich in vitamins, minerals, and fiber and the synergistic action between them and the anthocyanins might also be a reason for their health promoting powers. So, food beats supplements!

Pomegranate: Can it juice your memory?

pom wonderfulPomegranate juice is rich in polyphenols called ellagitannins (pronounced eee-laj-ah-tan-ins). These antioxidant compounds are in plants to protect the plant, but when we eat the plant, their protectors come along for the ride. The research, presented at the 2019 meeting of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, described how a daily serving of pomegranate juice improved visual learning and retention of learning in a year-long study with older adults, average age of 60. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study; a design that is considered the gold standard in nutrition research. What that means is that study participants were randomly assigned to either drink 8-ounces of pomegranate juice or 8-ounces of drink that looked and tasted like pomegranate juice but contained none of the active polyphenols. Double-blind means that neither the participant nor the researchers knew who was getting the real juice or the placebo. Dr. Gary Small, director of the University of California (UCLA) Longevity Center, presented the current research at the scientific conference, building upon similar work that his group published in 2013 in the Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. In the 2013 study, a similar design was used but the study was short-term, only lasting one month, but the results were similar. So, the researchers wanted to know if a longer-term study would show memory benefits, and it did.

Researchers are not sure exactly what it is in the pomegranate juice that showed the positive results. One interesting theory is that the pomegranate juice works though the gut microbiome. The healthy bacteria in our gut can breakdown the ellagitannins to a compound that crosses the blood brain barrier, exerting its beneficial effect through the gut-brain axis.

What does it mean for you?

An eight-ounce bottle of pomegranate juice contains 2 whole pomegranates, so drinking the unsweetened juice gives you 650 to 700 milligrams of polyphenols. That’s a lot of good stuff in a little bottle. Pomegranate juice is tart, not sweet, so it might appeal to those of you who don’t like sweet, sugar-added beverages. Considering that most of us don’t eat enough fruit, 8-ounces of pomegranate juice is a good way to get more fruit and healthy polyphenols in our diet.

Vitamin D: Good for the Brain?

Vit DThe third study is on vitamin D deficiency on processing new information and retaining it for future recall. It was conducted with mice and I always cautioned my students to count the legs on the research subjects before considering if it is relevant to those of us on two legs, but this study is interesting in understanding vitamin D deficiency and the brain. Vitamin D is most often thought of as a bone-building nutrient because without enough vitamin D only 10-15% of dietary calcium is absorbed. Yet, vitamin D has many roles in the body, including cognition.

Older adults are considered “at risk” for vitamin D deficiency because our skin doesn’t convert sunlight to vitamin D as readily as it did when we were younger and vitamin D isn’t found naturally in a lot of foods. Some foods, like milk, are fortified with vitamin D, but many yogurts are not. (The only way to know if your favorite yogurt is fortified with vitamin D is to read the nutrition facts panel and ingredient list on the container.)  The recommended dietary allowance for vitamin D is 600 IU for those 51 to 70 years and 800 IU for those over 70. The upper limit is 4000 IU and many older adults take a supplement of 1000 IU to make sure they are getting enough vitamin D. Check with your doctor and ask if a vitamin D blood test is needed to tailor your vitamin D intake to your blood level.

What does it mean for you?

Choose vitamin D-rich foods, either naturally occurring or fortified (for an extensive list of vitamin D in foods click here.)

Bottom Line

Eat more deeply colored fruits and veggies, including blueberries and pomegranate juice, to get healthy plant compounds in your diet. And, choose vitamin D rich foods, like salmon or tuna, and fortified milk, yogurt, and cereals. Here is my breakfast plan:

  • 1 cup of Greek yogurt (choose a brand fortified with Vitamin D)
  • 1 cup of fresh or frozen blueberries and ½ cup of high fiber breakfast cereal mixed into yogurt
  • 8-ounces of pomegranate juice

While the research is promising, this breakfast may or may not improve my brain health, but it gives me a great start to the morning with three servings of fruit and a good dose of fiber in a calcium and vitamin D-rich breakfast bowl. And, did I mention it tastes great?

For more information on how foods and fitness affect brain health check out Food & Fitness After 50.

Copyright © 2019 [Christine Rosenbloom]. All Rights Reserved.

Disclosure, I am on a clinical nutrition advisory board for POM Wonderful, but I was not asked to write about pomegranate juice or compensated to write this post. 

Food & Fitness After 50: Meet the Self-Proclaimed Bionic Old Guy

A blog showed up in my email written by “Bionic Old Guy.” That peaked my curiosity, so I reached out to the author. Turns out that “Bionic Old Guy” is really Dr. Bionic Old Guy, a 66-year old mechanical engineer with a doctorate from Stanford University. His blog tag line is “Aging Gracefully by Staying Active,” and that is a one of the pillars of Food & Fitness After 50 ,so I had to talk to him.

Bionic guy in slingWhen I asked him how he became the “bionic old guy” he laughed and said, “it was forced upon me by nature!” In 2012 he had both hips replaced with artificial joints and in 2017, a congenital heart problem resulted in a new heart valve. When I spoke with him he was recovering from a broken collarbone from a bike accident.

Old, But Still Moving

Not only did any of those setbacks stop him from being active, but they awakened a thirst to learn more about physiology, biomechanics, and how activity and nutrition support healthy aging. He wrote a book, Old But Still Moving, to help share what he has learned and he started a blog to continue to help others sort through all of the research on various topics on optimal aging.Bionic guy book cover

Rich (his real name!) has always been active, describing his various activities as his “hobby.” Biking, hiking, kayaking, canoeing, and other aerobic exercises are “fun.” “I never had to make myself be active when it came to endurance exercise; I always found those activities to be fun and not a chore.” But, he admitted he can’t say the same thing about strength training. “I know how important it is to maintain muscle mass as I age, so I do some upper body strength training two or three times a week in my garage gym.” He motivates himself to strength training by realizing that upper body strength helps him paddle his kayak and canoe, the activities he really loves!

Lileth yogaHe also cobbled together his own yoga program after watching “Lilas, Yoga and You,” a PBS program that ran from 1972-1992. “Balance and coordination help me hiking and biking, so working on that as I age is one of my key pillars for successful aging.”

An Inspiring Mentor

Bionic guy bikingRich is inspired by Clarence Bass and we enjoyed talking about the motivation that 82-year-old Mr. Bass inspires in both of us. After we talked, I shared my interview with Mr. Bass found here. From reading Mr. Bass’s advice, Rich has changed his exercise strategy from intense, competitive exercise, like a century bike ride (100 miles) to long, enjoyable hikes with family and friends that make the hike more social than competitive. “I still challenge myself, but my challenges are more likely to be short challenges, like how fast can I walk up the big hill in my neighborhood. If I walked it in over 4 minutes, I challenge myself do it in 4 minutes or less.” That helps him from overtraining and the injuries that it can bring.

The Food Part of Fitness

He finds the biggest challenge to his fitness routine is the food part. “It is hard to navigate through all of the media headlines and hype on the “best” diet or weight loss strategy or superfoods.” He eats lots of fruits and vegetables and living in northern California makes for an abundance of healthy produce all year long. But, he admits to having cravings and trigger foods and the best strategy is to keep those foods out of the house. “My wife can be satisfied with a 100-calorie pack of snacks, but I’m likely to eat 3 or 4 of those 100-calorie snacks, which obviously defeats the purpose.” But, he doesn’t deny himself any of his favorite foods, but considers them treats that can be managed.

Advice for Eating Well, Moving Well, and Being Well

Bionic guy at coyote open space

Rich likes the tag line for Food & Fitness After 50 of eating well, moving well, and being well. His words of wisdom play right into those tenets of healthy aging.

  • Be mindful. “I don’t listen to music when I hike or bike, so I can be in the moment and enjoy everything around me.” He also practices meditation for about 20 minutes each day.
  • Attitude is everything. “I see too many people who reach 65 and give up. They think they deserve to sit back and be inactive and overeat. But, never give up. You don’t have to run a marathon but just move more and eat a bit healthier at each meal.”
  • Don’t sit so much. “When I get involved in a new project, I really get into it and could sit for hours in front of my computer researching my latest interest.” Rich sets a pop-up timer to remind him to get up and take those activity breaks.
  • Live each day and stay in the moment. “The point isn’t to add years to your life, but add life to your years.”

Copyright © 2019 [Christine Rosenbloom]. All Rights Reserved.

Food & Fitness After 50: Weight Management….for your pets!

Sasmon food bowl
Samson, sleeping in his food bowl, after starting his “diet.”

Samson, my German Shepherd, never met a meal he didn’t like (that goes for socks, too, but that’s another story). When he tipped the scales at 105 pounds, our vet, Dr. Matthew Keifer, gently reminded us that German Shepherd dogs are prone to hip problems, so it would be best keep Samson under 100 pounds. We heeded his advice, despite Samson’s obvious desire for more food, today he is a svelte 93 pounds.

 

2017+U.S.+Pet+Obesity+InfographicWe are all aware of high obesity rates in humans. The most recent figures from the CDC report the prevalence of obesity in adults is 39.8%. But, another report caught my eye from ConscienHealth showing the rising rates of obesity in our dogs and cats. A report from a pet insurance company showed that they paid out $69 million for obesity-related veterinary care last year. Since less than 2% of pet owners have insurance for their furry friends, the dollar amount for obesity-related care is bound to be much higher.

The Association for Pet Obesity (#sad that we need such an organization) reports 2017 data showing that 56% of dogs and 60% of cats are clinically overweight. And, that takes a toll on their health.

I reached out to Dr. Leah Dorman, who, along with her colleague, helped me understand what we can do to keep our pets at a healthy weight. Here are their top 10 tips for controlling weight (these are for dogs and cats, but some of these work well for humans, too!)

  1. Many of us don’t realize our pets are overweight, so Dr. Dorman likes to show this chart to help clients identify if their pet is at a healthy weight. Body condition scoring helps the vet determine obesity and is another tool besides just scale weight. “An extra 30 pounds on a 65-pound Labrador is equivalent to an extra 75 pounds on a 154-pound woman,” making us appreciate how weight can affect a dog’s health.
  2. In addition to the medical conditions shown in the chart, dogs can show issues with CONSEQUENCES+OF+EXCESS+FAT+IN+DOGS+&+CATS+(1)their knee ligaments as the excess weight puts a burden on joints (just like it does in humans.) Losing even a small amount of weight can make a big difference in the mobility of an arthritic pet. Obese cats have a higher incidence of diabetes and dogs who are fed lots of people food can experience pancreatitis.

3. Assess your pet’s eating routine and the family’s feeding habits. Dr. Dorman recommend feeding the amount that keeps the pet in tip-top shape, based on body condition scoring.  Portion control is important. “A little poodle is only about 5% of an owner’s body weight, so adjust any people food they are given accordingly,” says Dr. Dorman. This link can help you identify treats for pets compared to human foods.

4. For pets who are not very active, consider feeding “less active” pet foods for a less calorie dense diet that allows the pet to still feel full.

5. Treats are OK, just limit the amounts of treats. Or, find low-cal treats like carrots or green beans if your pet will eat them. Be careful about table scraps; “calories can add up quickly and it’s often done on the sly by family members…it’s so hard to resist those begging puppy or kitty eyes watching every bite you take.  Be strong!  Your pet’s health depends on it!”

6. In households where there are multiple people feeding the pet, put all the treats and food for the pet into a Ziplock bag labeled Sunday through Saturday. When the bag is empty, they are done for the day.

7. Limit or eliminate canned food. “Try green beans; cut a pet’s food back by 20% and replace that volume with green beans.”

8. “Dogs are feast or famine eaters… their ancestors would go out, catch something then gorge themselves then not eat for a few days. It is normal for pets to eat well one day and not the next.” So, avoid the temptation to doctor up their food to tempt them to eat.

9. “Stop feeding them when they beg!!! You are rewarding a bad behavior.  It’s like giving your kid a candy bar in the checkout line when they are wailing at the top of their lungs even though you said no six times already.  You cave to the begging behavior and you bet they will be back to beg.”

10. Be aware of the calories in the pet treats. “A large busy bone has over 700 calories and an average size dog treat has about 110 calories- about the number of calories in a chocolate chip cookie. It’s OK to have one, but not 10 each day!”

Samson 2015
A sleek Samson at 93 pounds

Dr. Leah Dorman is Doctor of Veterinarian Medicine and is the Director, Food Integrity & Consumer Engagement with Phibro Animal Health Corporation. Follow her on twitter @askDrDorman and terrific blog, found by clicking here.

Copyright © 2019 [Christine Rosenbloom]. All Rights Reserved.

Food & Fitness After 50: Plant-Based Eating

A recent article in the Washington Post noted that the number of new food and drink products that mentioned plant-based eating grew 268% between 2012 and 2018. There is no getting around it…plant-based eating, from oat milk to chickpea snacks, are filling the shelves of grocery stories.

Sharon head shotI sat down with the Plant-Powered Dietitian, Sharon Palmer, to ask her about plant-based eating for the 50+ crowd.

What drew you to be the plant-powered dietitian? Did you grow up in vegetarian household or was it something you discovered in your studies in nutrition and dietetics?

I grew up in a mostly vegetarian household. My parents tried to follow a vegetarian diet for religious reasons, so I grew up eating a lot of healthy, home-made foods and some of the funky vegetarian foods of the 60s and 70s. I then went to school to study nutrition at Loma Linda University, which is a meat-free campus, even back in the 80s. This is the original Blue Zone*in the US. After school, I was more of a flexitarian—I never really had acquired the taste for meat, I always preferred plants. After that I became a pescatarian (one who eats fish) for a while, then moved back to lacto ovo (milk and eggs) vegetarian. About 7 years ago I took a 30-day vegan challenge so that I could personally understand this diet to counsel others. I found that I felt good about my own health and the minimal impact on animals and the planet. So, I’ve been moving along on this diet pattern ever since.

What’s the difference between vegetarian, vegan, and plant-based eating?

Plant-based eating originally was defined as a diet that focuses mostly on plant foods. However, in recent years, more and more experts, groups, restaurants, authors, food companies, and people are using the term plant-based to mean 100% plant-based, as in vegan.  In nutrition research, the term is still used more broadly, however most people consider it to mean vegan. Vegetarian is a diet that excludes animal flesh but allows for dairy and eggs. Vegan excludes all animal foods in the diet, including dairy and eggs.

Many older adults, me included, grew up with meat at the center of the plate. How would you suggest we break away from that mindset?

I always suggest that making steps toward a more plant-based diet is a great start towards a healthful, sustainable eating pattern. One of the first things you can do is switch your thinking; not every meal has to have a piece of meat as the star. On a plant-based diet, the plants are the stars. I often start my meal planning with the plant food. For example, if I have a butternut squash in my kitchen, I start thinking about that as the star of my plate—perhaps I will stuff it with lentils and faro or use it in a thick stew with white beans and serve a side salad. The inspiration comes from the seasonal plants. Other things you can do: find plant-based swaps. If your favorite meal is spaghetti Bolognese, try a lentil Bolognese; turn your pepperoni pizza into a broccoli cashew pizza, and your meat lasagna into a kale lasagna. You can also turn to the wonderful variety of ethnic foods that are based on plants, such as falafel, hummus, tofu stir-fry, and Chana masala.

There is a lot of emphasis on quality protein for aging muscle; can older adults get high quality protein in a plant-powered diet and what are the best sources of protein to support muscle mass and strength?

There are many examples of high-quality plant protein foods—similar to the quality of animal protein. The star plant protein is soy—it is similar in quality to animal protein. In addition, pulses (beans, peas, and lentils) are high in quality, too. The important point is that if someone consumes a balanced plant-based diet, with adequate sources of a variety of plants—pulses, soy foods, whole grains, vegetables, nuts, seeds—they can get the all of the amino acids needed by the body from those foods. It’s not necessary to “combine” or “complement” proteins at each meal. However, it is important to make sure you are selecting a variety of protein-rich foods at each meal to ensure adequate protein intake. One note: vegans may need slightly more protein daily to accommodate for digestibility—the high fiber nature of many plant foods means that the proteins are not quite as digestible. So, it’s a good idea to get servings of protein-rich foods at each meal and snack. And don’t forego soy needlessly—this is a really important plant protein source for vegans. (For more information, see Today’s Dietitian for an article on plant proteins, written by Sharon.)

What are the benefits of plant-powered diets on chronic disease that affect many older adults ?

There is a good body of evidence that suggests plant-based diets, including vegetarian and vegan, are linked with a lower risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and some cancers. There is more research coming out on issues such as arthritis, but there is not as much in this area—we need more research. It makes perfect sense that plant-based diets would help those suffering from arthritis as whole plant foods contain powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds. Plant-foods can also lower cholesterol, C-Reactive Protein (CRP, a measure of inflammation), and blood pressure levels.  A lot of the benefits of a plant-based diet are not as much about what you DON’T eat, it’s more about what you do eat.

How many daily servings of fruits and vegetables do you recommend? Many older adults are concerned about the sugar in fruit; how do you respond to that comment?

I recommend about 3 servings of unsweetened fruit and 6 servings of vegetables per day. I tell people that the natural sugars in fruits are not a problem—fruit should be your dessert at each meal!

Many older adults are weight conscious; how can a plant-based diet help them control calories?

Studies have consistently found that plant-based diets are linked with lower weights. In particular, vegan diets have been linked with a whole category of lowered body mass index (BMI) than non-vegetarian diets. However, diets that include a mostly whole plant foods, such as beans, whole grains, fruits and vegetables, are very high in fiber and volume, so they can fill you up and satisfy you with fewer calories.

What would you say to encourage an older adult to shift to a plant-based diet?

You can reduce your risk of disease—and even effectively manage diseases, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. It can also help to reduce your carbon footprint.  And, it can reduce your levels of chronic inflammation.

Give us 3 tips for those who want to adopt plant-based eating?

  • Try Meatless Monday—just one day a week go plant-based for the whole day, once you’ve got this covered you can add a few more days.
  • Turn your favorite meals into plant-based versions by swapping out some foods, such as meat for beans, chicken for tofu, and cheese for nuts.
  • Try the power bowl formula: whole grains base + plant protein (tempeh, tofu, beans) + veggies + flavorful sauce.

plant-powered-diet-hardcoverThanks, Sharon, for helping us understand plant-based PlantPoweredFor Life covereating; I would like to add another tip….check out Sharon’s terrific books, The Plant-Powered Diet and Plant-Powered for Life. Both books are on my shelf!

 

*For those of you who don’t know, Blue Zones are areas in the world with the longest-lived populations; I’ll write more about Blue Zones in a future post.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Food & Fitness After 50: The Strong Live Long

This post was written by Dr. Bob Murray, co-author of Food & Fitness After 50.

Maintaining muscle strength is a critical factor in ensuring a long healthspan—being as healthy as possible for as long as possible—and in ensuring that we can do so independently.  Fending for oneself is an important psychological component of successful aging.  That’s not to say that we don’t all need to be looked after periodically throughout our lives—illness, injuries, and surgeries being obvious examples of when it is both nice and often essential to temporarily relinquish our independence and allow others to care for us.  But to be dependent on others to help us accomplish the daily demands of living—opening jars, carrying groceries, rising from a chair, climbing stairs—is a scenario most people would like to avoid.

1253414  Muscle weakness with age is often, but not always, accompanied by sarcopenia—a severe loss of muscle mass and muscle function—often referred to in older adults as frailty.  The perils of sarcopenia are not surprising: higher risk of falls, faster functional decline, more bone fractures of all types, greater chance of hospitalization, longer hospital stays, and higher death rate.  It is estimated that about one-quarter to one-third of those over age 70 are sarcopenic and it is likely that even more are dynapenic—muscular weakness with or without sarcopenia.

We will all gradually lose muscle mass and strength as we age, but we can control the rate at which we lose it.  In simple terms, inactivity and a poor diet accelerate the aging of muscle while regular exercise and a good diet remain the best ways to keep our muscles young.  To that end, any kind of physical activity is better than no physical activity, but the best results come from a combination of aerobic exercise and strength training.  The current recommendations are to engage in at least 150 minutes of aerobic activity (walking, biking, swimming, etc.) each week, along with two sessions of strength-training exercise.

Regular physical activity preserves strength and function by stimulating not only the muscles involved in exercise, but also the nerves responsible for muscle contractions.  In addition, active muscles release compounds called myokines that travel in the bloodstream and positively affect cells throughout the body.  Also, fit muscle cells recover more quickly from injury and surgery, additional benefits to staying active.

Bob2   Added good news is that we do not have to devote hours each week to strength training.  Preserving and even increasing muscle strength can be accomplished with short bouts of exercises that are continued to fatigue.  For example, doing a combination of push-ups, tricep extensions with weights, and chair dips will quickly exhaust the shoulder, chest, and arm muscles involved in elbow extension, adding strength and protecting muscle mass.  Doing similar combinations of movements with other muscle groups will reap the same results.  As with all exercise, the best results come from getting our muscles out of their comfort zone on a regular basis.

When it comes to diet, studies show that older adults who increase their daily protein intake can better support improvements in strength and muscle mass.  The simplest way to accomplish increased protein intake is to consume more protein at breakfast, the meal that often has the least amount of protein.  Consuming 30 to 40 grams of protein at each meal will give most of us the recommended amount of protein. (For ideas on how to eat about 30 grams of protein per meal, check this out.)

Use it or lose it is the operative explanation for age-related changes in muscle strength and mass, as well as for most every other body function that we’d like to preserve as we grow older.  For older adults just getting started with strength exercises, the U.S. National Institute on Aging has examples of activities that can easily be accomplished at home (click here for a link to strength exercises.) YMCAs, fitness centers, and various internet sites (click here for one internet site with many at-home workout videos.)

Chapter 6 of Food & Fitness After 50 is devoted to gaining and maintaining muscle and strength, and chapter 2 has all sorts of tips for how to eat for optimal aging.  Aging is inevitable, but we can exercise control over the rate at which we age.  We just have to do it.

 

Food & Fitness After 50: Note to Grandparents; No Need to Freak Out Over the Way Your Grandchildren are Fed

I’m sure that many of you who have grandchildren have rolled your eyes at the new infant feeding practices foisted upon your precious grandbabies! I can hear it now, “what was wrong with the old way of feeding babies, my kids turned out just fine?” Well, time marches on and so do advances in infant feeding. Today, I hope to assuage your fears about those newfangled infant feeding practices and the introduction of solid foods to babies. So, let’s talk about best practices and introduce you to something called baby led weaning.

BLD twins
Great nieces getting into baby led weaning

I got the chance to hear about all of this from an expert, registered dietitian, Keli Hawthorne, Director of Clinical Research in the Department of Pediatrics at the Dell Medical School, University of Texas at Austin. And, I was excited to pass along the information to my niece and her twin baby girls who are starting to eat solid foods and practicing baby led weaning.

Importance of the First 1000 Days

Keli emphasized that “the first 1000 days, from pregnancy to age 2, are a unique period to lay the foundation for optimum health, growth, and brain development.” However, both parents and grandparents are confused on what and when to feed infants, “in fact UNICEF reports that 54% of parents receive mixed messages about what to feed their babies,” said Keli. As a grandparent are you contributing to the confusion???

Here are the infant feeding guidelines from the American Association of Pediatrics

  • Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6th months
  • At 6 months, complementary foods can be introduced with continuation of breastfeeding for at least a year.

Introducing Solid Foods

The introduction of complementary foods is where things get interesting. Kelli explained that introducing solid foods doesn’t follow rules of old. “Introduce solid foods around 6 months of age and expose the baby to a wide variety of healthy foods and textures. There is no reason or medical evidence that introducing solid foods in any particular order has any advantage. And, meats can be offered as an early complementary food.” In fact, infants and toddlers can benefit from the iron found in meats. “While iron-fortified cereals are often a first food, the iron isn’t as available to the baby’s system as meat. Bioavailability of iron from fortified cereals is ~3% compared to that of animal sources which is ~12-15% and iron is a key nutrient for brain development.”

Parents who choose vegetarian diets for babies should be aware that nutrient supplements or fortified foods must be added to ensure nutrient needs are met. Allergenic foods can be introduced between 4 and 6 months, so no need to avoid foods like peanut butter. In fact, early introduction of peanuts can reduce peanut allergies later in a child’s life . (For more on the early introduction of peanuts click here .)

Baby Led Weaning

 A popular feeding method with young parents is something called “baby led weaning.” Keli explained that baby led weaning  Keli explained that baby led weaning began in Britain, where “weaning” means adding complementary foods to breast milk or formula when the baby is ready to eat solid foods. “I think if it was called infant self-feeding it would be easier for people to understand,” said Keli.  The basic idea is to ditch the pureed foods and give babies the same foods that the rest of the family eats. “Once a baby can sit up unsupported, she or he can pick up their own food and put it into the mouth unassisted — generally sometime between 6-8 months old. This method of feeding can help with development of oral motor control while maintaining eating as a positive, interactive experience.”

Baby led weaning foods
Keli’s slide showing food samples

“Food should be cut in shapes that make it easy to grasp, as babies don’t have the pincher grasp until about 9 months of age.” And, some of the concerns or fears of baby led weaning can be put to rest. “Parents should recognize the difference between the gag reflex and choking, but there is no increased incidence of choking with baby led weaning.” However, if more food ends up on the floor or in the dog’s mouth, parents may have to help baby eat.

Mixing Solids and Purees?

Keli said parents don’t have to opt for one feeding style. “There is nothing wrong with offering both finger foods and purees, but don’t do it on the same spoon. It can be confusing if finger foods and purees are offered at the same time, so try it at different courses of the same meal.”

Keli ended her presentation by showing how a family meal, ground beef and pasta skillet (for the recipe click here.) could be served to baby by breaking meat in ½ inch crumbles or making little meatballs, dicing or cutting squash into strips, and extending cooking time of pasta to ensure it is soft.

So, next time you see your son or daughter feeding your grandbabies, you can share what you know about the latest feeding techniques.

For more information on feeding infants and toddlers, check out these resources:

Feeding Tips for Healthy Infant Growth

Eating Tips for Healthy Toddler Growth

The presentation on infant feeding was sponsored by The Beef Checkoff. I was not asked or compensated to write this post. I wrote it to help my great nieces and nephews get off to a healthy start in life!

Copyright © 2019 [Christine Rosenbloom]. All Rights Reserved.