Food & Fitness After 50: Dietary Supplement Q&A

frequently-asked-questions

In June of this year I developed a webinar for Today’s Dietitian titled, “Dietary Supplement Use in Older Adults: Help, Hype, or Hope?” (Click here to access the webinar.) The webinar ended with a robust Q&A. Time ran out before we could get to all of the questions and some of them were tough to answer. In my teaching days I told students to seek out experts when they didn’t know the answer to a question, so I turned to an expert in dietary supplements to help me. Dr. Anthony Thomas is the Director of Scientific Affairs for Jarrow Formulas and he jumped in to answer your questions. I’ve tapped Dr. Thomas in the past when you asked about probiotic supplements…click here for a link to that post.

Question: The number 1 question involved supplement ingredients. Many people believe that all supplement ingredients are manufactured in China and they expressed concerns over quality issues with Chinese ingredients.

“Ingredients for use in dietary supplement manufacturing are sourced from all over the world, including China,” explains Dr. Thomas. “Quality ingredients are quality ingredients regardless of their country of origin and in fact a number of companies headquartered in other countries have manufacturing set up in the U.S., too.”

thOne suggestion that I routine make when asked about supplements is to look for a quality brand, like Jarrow Formulas (disclosure, I have no connection to Jarrow Formulas, but I do use some of their products because I recognize quality supplements.). A quality brand often uses third-party verification or endorsement. That means that a brand contracts with a third-party certifying agency to test their products. One of the most well-known is USP which stands for United States Pharmacopia. When you see the USP symbol on a supplement it tells you that the supplement:

  • Contains what the ingredient label says it contains and, in the amount, listed
  • Doesn’t contain contaminants
  • Will dissolve or break down in the body and get absorbed into the blood stream in a specific time frame
  • Has been made with good manufacturing processes (GMPs) as outlined by the Food & Drug Administration.

NSF-Certified-for-sport-blue-and-orange-196x300Another well-known third-party entity that evaluates supplements is NSF. The NSF certification also helps consumers know they are getting a quality supplement.  When I worked with athletes at the university, we looked for NSF certified supplements because they test supplements to ensure that they do not contain substances banned by their sport governing body.

Question: What is the difference between a supplement called a nutraceutical vs. nootropic?

Dr. Thomas defines it this way, “a supplement called a nutraceutical is more-or-less a fancy term (not a legal term) for dietary components or dietary supplement ingredients with purported health benefits beyond nutritive value.  Nootropics are a subset of ingredients that positively influence cognitive function(s).”

Question: Is there a B12 supplement source for vegans? What form of B12 is best absorbed in older adults?

Vitamin-B12“All forms of B12 used in dietary supplements are suitable for vegans since they are synthesized chemically. Look for one that says suitable for vegans because some capsules are made with gelatin. Jarrow Formulas makes a chewable form that is appropriate for vegans,” says Dr. Thomas. “Thus, the concern about vitamin B12 deficiency in vegans is easily overcome.”

As for the “best” form of B12, Dr. Thomas explains, “despite the marketing hype, there is not good evidence of differences in absorption between different forms of the vitamin. There is limited evidence suggests that methyl-B12 may be better retained by the body and reduced elimination in the urine compared to cyanocobalamin.  Methyl-B12 seems to be the preferred form by consumers, but that is likely due in large part to marketing rather than research demonstrated superiority. Some suggest that methyl-B12 is not suitable for all the body’s needs as if it cannot be converted to right form, but this is incorrect.” The bottom line is that some marketing might make it appear that there is a “best” form but all forms are used by the body.

 Question: How do you know if supplements of omega 3s are not rancid?

Fish-Oil“Unfortunately, smell is not always indicative of oxidative degradation.  If the product is stored away from heat and light exposure, it should be fine, although I often just keep my bottles in the fridge,” says Dr. Thomas. “Soft gels are usually formulated with antioxidant ingredients to protect against oxidation.”  As with other supplements, buy supplements from a reputable brand with a long-standing reputation of quality. That is my recommendation, as well as Dr. Thomas’ recommendation. He adds, “of course this recommendation may seem self-serving given the company I work for.  However, there is increasingly more direct consumer brands primarily available online as they can contract the manufacturing of the supplement and just put their label on the product but it may or may not have all the other quality control measures in place to ensure safety, potency, and quality.  We see more problems with products from such companies, not all or most, and it is often guilt by association for the entire industry. In fact, Jarrow L. Rogovin, the man who started Jarrow Formulas in 1977, relied on contract manufacturers but after so many issues over the years, he eventually invested in the development of our own manufacturing nearly 20 years ago.

Thanks to Dr. Thomas for helping me answer your questions on dietary supplements. Keep the questions coming!

Dr. Christine Rosenbloom is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a nutrition professor emerita at Georgia State University in Atlanta. Along with Dr. Bob Murray, she is the author of Food & Fitness After 50.

Copyright © 2019 [Christine Rosenbloom]. All Rights Reserved

 

 

Food & Fitness After 50: Plant-Based Eating

A recent article in the Washington Post noted that the number of new food and drink products that mentioned plant-based eating grew 268% between 2012 and 2018. There is no getting around it…plant-based eating, from oat milk to chickpea snacks, are filling the shelves of grocery stories.

Sharon head shotI sat down with the Plant-Powered Dietitian, Sharon Palmer, to ask her about plant-based eating for the 50+ crowd.

What drew you to be the plant-powered dietitian? Did you grow up in vegetarian household or was it something you discovered in your studies in nutrition and dietetics?

I grew up in a mostly vegetarian household. My parents tried to follow a vegetarian diet for religious reasons, so I grew up eating a lot of healthy, home-made foods and some of the funky vegetarian foods of the 60s and 70s. I then went to school to study nutrition at Loma Linda University, which is a meat-free campus, even back in the 80s. This is the original Blue Zone*in the US. After school, I was more of a flexitarian—I never really had acquired the taste for meat, I always preferred plants. After that I became a pescatarian (one who eats fish) for a while, then moved back to lacto ovo (milk and eggs) vegetarian. About 7 years ago I took a 30-day vegan challenge so that I could personally understand this diet to counsel others. I found that I felt good about my own health and the minimal impact on animals and the planet. So, I’ve been moving along on this diet pattern ever since.

What’s the difference between vegetarian, vegan, and plant-based eating?

Plant-based eating originally was defined as a diet that focuses mostly on plant foods. However, in recent years, more and more experts, groups, restaurants, authors, food companies, and people are using the term plant-based to mean 100% plant-based, as in vegan.  In nutrition research, the term is still used more broadly, however most people consider it to mean vegan. Vegetarian is a diet that excludes animal flesh but allows for dairy and eggs. Vegan excludes all animal foods in the diet, including dairy and eggs.

Many older adults, me included, grew up with meat at the center of the plate. How would you suggest we break away from that mindset?

I always suggest that making steps toward a more plant-based diet is a great start towards a healthful, sustainable eating pattern. One of the first things you can do is switch your thinking; not every meal has to have a piece of meat as the star. On a plant-based diet, the plants are the stars. I often start my meal planning with the plant food. For example, if I have a butternut squash in my kitchen, I start thinking about that as the star of my plate—perhaps I will stuff it with lentils and faro or use it in a thick stew with white beans and serve a side salad. The inspiration comes from the seasonal plants. Other things you can do: find plant-based swaps. If your favorite meal is spaghetti Bolognese, try a lentil Bolognese; turn your pepperoni pizza into a broccoli cashew pizza, and your meat lasagna into a kale lasagna. You can also turn to the wonderful variety of ethnic foods that are based on plants, such as falafel, hummus, tofu stir-fry, and Chana masala.

There is a lot of emphasis on quality protein for aging muscle; can older adults get high quality protein in a plant-powered diet and what are the best sources of protein to support muscle mass and strength?

There are many examples of high-quality plant protein foods—similar to the quality of animal protein. The star plant protein is soy—it is similar in quality to animal protein. In addition, pulses (beans, peas, and lentils) are high in quality, too. The important point is that if someone consumes a balanced plant-based diet, with adequate sources of a variety of plants—pulses, soy foods, whole grains, vegetables, nuts, seeds—they can get the all of the amino acids needed by the body from those foods. It’s not necessary to “combine” or “complement” proteins at each meal. However, it is important to make sure you are selecting a variety of protein-rich foods at each meal to ensure adequate protein intake. One note: vegans may need slightly more protein daily to accommodate for digestibility—the high fiber nature of many plant foods means that the proteins are not quite as digestible. So, it’s a good idea to get servings of protein-rich foods at each meal and snack. And don’t forego soy needlessly—this is a really important plant protein source for vegans. (For more information, see Today’s Dietitian for an article on plant proteins, written by Sharon.)

What are the benefits of plant-powered diets on chronic disease that affect many older adults ?

There is a good body of evidence that suggests plant-based diets, including vegetarian and vegan, are linked with a lower risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and some cancers. There is more research coming out on issues such as arthritis, but there is not as much in this area—we need more research. It makes perfect sense that plant-based diets would help those suffering from arthritis as whole plant foods contain powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds. Plant-foods can also lower cholesterol, C-Reactive Protein (CRP, a measure of inflammation), and blood pressure levels.  A lot of the benefits of a plant-based diet are not as much about what you DON’T eat, it’s more about what you do eat.

How many daily servings of fruits and vegetables do you recommend? Many older adults are concerned about the sugar in fruit; how do you respond to that comment?

I recommend about 3 servings of unsweetened fruit and 6 servings of vegetables per day. I tell people that the natural sugars in fruits are not a problem—fruit should be your dessert at each meal!

Many older adults are weight conscious; how can a plant-based diet help them control calories?

Studies have consistently found that plant-based diets are linked with lower weights. In particular, vegan diets have been linked with a whole category of lowered body mass index (BMI) than non-vegetarian diets. However, diets that include a mostly whole plant foods, such as beans, whole grains, fruits and vegetables, are very high in fiber and volume, so they can fill you up and satisfy you with fewer calories.

What would you say to encourage an older adult to shift to a plant-based diet?

You can reduce your risk of disease—and even effectively manage diseases, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. It can also help to reduce your carbon footprint.  And, it can reduce your levels of chronic inflammation.

Give us 3 tips for those who want to adopt plant-based eating?

  • Try Meatless Monday—just one day a week go plant-based for the whole day, once you’ve got this covered you can add a few more days.
  • Turn your favorite meals into plant-based versions by swapping out some foods, such as meat for beans, chicken for tofu, and cheese for nuts.
  • Try the power bowl formula: whole grains base + plant protein (tempeh, tofu, beans) + veggies + flavorful sauce.

plant-powered-diet-hardcoverThanks, Sharon, for helping us understand plant-based PlantPoweredFor Life covereating; I would like to add another tip….check out Sharon’s terrific books, The Plant-Powered Diet and Plant-Powered for Life. Both books are on my shelf!

 

*For those of you who don’t know, Blue Zones are areas in the world with the longest-lived populations; I’ll write more about Blue Zones in a future post.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Food & Fitness After 50: The Power of Having a Plan A and Plan B for a Healthy Life

As a 10-year-old, Samantha loved animals. She had 5 cats and her favorite Walt Disney movies were the ones featuring animals, not princesses. And, she faithfully watched the television show, Wild Kingdom. Her love of animals made her question what she was eating, and she told her mother she was going to be a vegetarian. By the age of 18, she made a deeper commitment and became a strict vegetarian. Today, many years later Samantha remains a strict vegetarian who is mostly vegan.

In her early 20s, she moved to New York City to pursue her dream of singing and acting; a Broadway star-to-be! Like many aspiring entertainers, she needed a Plan B and that led her become a licensed massage therapist, fitness instructor and ultimately to going back to school and getting master of science degrees in exercise physiology and nutrition.

S Heller photoToday, in her 50s, she may not be winning Tony Awards, but she is an entertainer of the educational kind. She hosts a weekly radio program on Sirius XM Doctor Radio and is a frequent health expert on TV. A sought after speaker, Samantha blends her musical talent with her passion for science and medicine by infusing many of her keynote presentations with music and song. “These presentations are not musicals” she says “But the science is accented with popular music and humor which adds a whole other dimension, facilitates learning and retention and is fun.” (For example, see her at work in the fusion of science and song.)

Let’s back up a bit…after Samantha completed school and became a registered dietitian nutritionist, she started counseling patients with medical conditions at NYU Langone Health. Though Samantha is a vegetarian, the nutrition advice and medical nutrition therapy she provides her patients is always evidence based. She understands the importance of meeting people where they are and working with them to optimize their health. She learned to listen to her patient’s needs and gently nudge them to a healthier life. If that means eating meat, then she teaches them the healthiest choices and how to moderate portions, while increasing nutrient-rich plants and whole grains.

While working as a clinical dietitian at the medical center, the public relations department tapped her to do local television appearances and her acting chops and her knowledge of health made her a natural. In 2008, Doctor Radio came along, and she has been hosting the show every Friday for the past nine years. “The radio show, which is conducted live every week, has provided an amazing opportunity to work with a variety of health professional from medical doctors to nurses to registered dietitians who otherwise would have no reason to talk to me!” Her goals are simple: provide science-based health information, showcase her guests so they do a great job, and have fun. As a guest on her show several times, I can attest that she meets all of those goals with a 5-star rating.

There are many keys to her success, certainly her performance skills shine through her radio voice, but she doesn’t just talk the talk, she lives it. Samantha exercises most days of the week. She loves running, hiking and walking when the weather cooperates, but in the cold NYC winters, she hits the gym. Just as with her career, she always has a Plan A and Plan B for exercise. “Aim high when it comes to activity; we are not always going to meet the goal, but that just makes you want try harder.” As mentioned earlier, she eats a plant-centered diet for health and enjoyment. “In 2017 it easier to be more plant based than ever before. There are tons of recipes online and many restaurants now have vegetarian and vegan options.”

She also promotes being well by managing stress. “I promote a positive approach to daily life by rewriting the script when bad news intervenes. We can’t avoid stress, but we can manage it by redirecting negative thoughts into proactive, positive responses.” She also encourages her patients and her listeners to “be kind and respectful” to their bodies. “Our body’s job is to keep us alive so use your brain…your mental muscle…to move yourself to good health.”

She knows it isn’t always easy, especially as we age. She sees many of her friends struggling with finances as they age, working 2-3 part-time jobs and worrying about who will care for them when they are old. Many are caretakers for aging parents or loved ones, creating another layer of stress. However, she encourages a proactive approach to good health and optimal aging to be the best we can be at any age.

Samantha may not have ended up on Broadway (but, I wouldn’t be surprised if she had a Plan C up her sleeve!), but she has positively impacted the lives of her patients and Doctor Radio listeners. For that I give her the 2017 Food & Fitness After 50 Award!

For more tips on eating well, moving well, and being well, check out my new book (with co-author, Dr. Bob Murray). Available in paperback or Kindle edition at Amazon.