Food & Fitness After 50: Good Bones

A recent article in the Washington Post caught my attention because it related to an issue that older adults frequently ask about….how to protect their bones as they age.

Hip-Fracture-Surgery-Infection-640x444According to the study published in JAMA vitamin D supplements showed no effect on reducing hip fractures where as vitamin D plus calcium had about a 16% reduction in the risk of breaking a hip. Hip fracture is one of the most serious threats to health as we age. Here’s a few facts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  • Each year over 300,000 older people—those 65 and older—are hospitalized for hip fractures.
  • More than 95% of hip fractures are caused by falling, usually by falling sideways.
  • Women experience three-quarters of all hip fractures.
    • Women fall more often than men.
    • Women more often have osteoporosis, a disease that weakens bones and makes them more likely to break.

Dietary Supplement Use for Bone Health

A recent survey from the Council on Responsible Medicine, a leading trade association for dietary supplements, shows that among consumers over 55 years of age who take dietary supplements, 31% cite bone health as a reason for supplementation. For younger age groups, bone health is not mentioned as a reason for supplementation. That is too bad because the time to build bone is when we are young! Peak bone mass is achieved somewhere around the age of 30 or 35 so waiting until you are 60 to start worrying about bone health is a bit too late. It’s like getting concerned about your cholesterol level after you’ve had a heart attack. (Side note to my older readers…encourage your grandchildren and great grandchildren to get plenty of bone building nutrients now!)

boneMass35Anthony Thomas, Director of Scientific Affairs for Jarrow Formulas puts it this way, “Maximizing peak bone mass is important when we are young to protect against age-related bone loss.  A 10% increase in peak bone mass is estimated to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fracture later in life by 50%, so early life deserves more attention to ensure sufficient nutrient intake and status to support bone health across the lifespan.”

It Takes More Than Calcium and Vitamin D to Make a Healthy Bone

natto
Natto

While the media focuses on calcium and vitamin D, Dr. Thomas reminds us that bone is more than those two nutrients. Healthy bones need the minerals magnesium, potassium, copper, manganese, silicon, boron, and zinc. Two underappreciated vitamins are also key, vitamins C and K. Vitamin C is needed to produce collagen, the most abundant protein in the body and building block of bone. Vitamin K helps calcium get deposited into bones. There are two forms of vitamin K, referred to as K1 and K2. K1 is most well-known for its role in blood clotting. But the K2 form promotes bone building. It is hard to get sufficient K2 from foods. Dr. Thomas points out that “vitamin K2 is from bacterial origin, so it is found in fermented foods in which bacteria are used as starter cultures in cheeses and sauerkraut.  The best dietary source of vitamin K2 in the form of MK-7 is the traditional Japanese dish natto, cooked soybeans fermented by the bacteria Bacillus subtilis subspecies natto, that while popular in Japan, is not much appreciated in the U.S.“ The best way to get this form of the vitamin is with supplements sold as MK-7.

“Based on emerging research, the supplemental doses used in research is a daily dose of vitamin K2 as MK-7 is 45 micrograms upwards of 360 micrograms is recommended,” adds Dr. Thomas.

Fall Protection

While foods and supplementation can help provide nutrients for healthy bones, don’t forget the ABCs (agility, balance, and coordination) as keys to help preventing falls. We’ve written about this before (click here for the post), but it pays to work on your balance with activities like yoga, Tai Chi, or simple exercises such as balancing on one foot when you brush your teeth. When it comes to balance, we can use it….or, we can lose it!

Check out this video from Silver Sneakers for easy exercises to improve your balance

For more information on foods and supplements for bone health and tips to improve your agility, balance, and coordination, see Food & Fitness After 50, available at Amazon and other booksellers.

Copyright © 2019 [Christine Rosenbloom]. All Rights Reserved.

Forty ng/mL? That is the level of vitamin D (also called serum 25(OH)D3) in my blood but what does it mean? Vitamin D is one of the most talked about nutrients and for good reason–along with calcium it is critical for building and maintaining healthy bones, but vitamin D is also one of the most confusing vitamins. We can get vitamin D three different ways:

  • through foods (although very few foods are good, natural sources)
  • through supplements (although it comes in different forms and researchers aren’t always consistent in their advice about which form is best)
  • through sunshine or the ultraviolet rays from the sun to be more precise (but SPF 8 or greater, heavy cloud cover, skin color, aging, and even the angle of the sun in winter blocks vitamin D from being made in sufficient amounts)

So what is an over-50 year old adult to do?

First, choose foods that contain vitamin D or foods that are fortified with vitamin D: salmon, mackerel, tuna and sardines are good sources because fatty fish contain this fat-soluble vitamin. Mushrooms (they are being exposed to ultraviolet light to make them good sources), milk, some but not all yogurts (read the label), many breakfast cereals and orange juice contain vitamin D. A recent study found that half of vitamin D intake comes from milk so that is a good place to start.

Second, consider supplementation; you might be getting some in your multi-vitamin and most contain 400 IU (IU stands for international units, the measure used in supplements). Vitamin D comes in two forms–D2 and D3 and most, but not all, experts recommend the D3 form because early research showed that D3 is more effective at raising vitamin D blood levels than D2. However, some research shows that both forms are effective at improving blood levels.

Third, consider getting some sensible sun–10 to 15 minutes of sun exposure twice a week can improve vitamin D levels. This recommendations is controversial because UV rays from the sun or tanning beds are tied to the million of skin cancer diagnoses each year.

Which leads us back to that 40 ng/mL blood level–is that good or bad? According to the lab report 40 is a healthy level, but trending more toward the insufficient end of the range. A controversial article in an international osteoporosis journal suggests that older adults need 800 to 1000 IU of vitamin D each day to reach the maximal blood levels of vitamin D.

Next time you go to the doctor and have blood drawn, ask for a vitamin D level–in the meantime, increase your intake of vitamin D from foods and if you supplement, look at the supplement label to determine how much vitamin D your supplement provides.

For more information check out Dr. Michael Holick’s website http://www.vitamindhealth.org/ or his new book, The Vitamin D Solution.