Each week Obesity and Energetic Offerings arrives in my inbox. It is a weekly roundup of research from Indiana University School of Public Health and University of Alabama Birmingham Nutrition Obesity Research Center. One of my favorite features is called “Headline vs Study,” and a recent one on weight loss diets was intriguing.
The Headline: Study Reveals the Best Diet for Actually Losing Weight and Keeping It Off.
The Study: Exploratory, observational analysis: “Small differences in metabolic outcomes were apparent in participants following self-selected diets… However, results should be interpreted with caution given the exploratory nature of analyses.”
Being a nutrition nerd, I read the study titled “Intermittent fasting, Paleolithic, or Mediterranean diets in the real world: exploratory secondary analyses of a weight-loss trial that included choice of diet and exercise,” published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Here are the key takeways:
- Conducted in New Zealand and Australia, the current study was a secondary analysis of data from a study on support strategies for three different diets and two different modes of exercise to understand different monitoring strategies that might encourage adherence to diets and exercise.
- About 250 individuals who were healthy and had a body mass index that classified them as having overweight were selected and screened for height, weight, blood pressure, and blood sugar.
- Individuals could choose one of three diets: Mediterranean, Paleo, or Intermittent Fasting (IF) and one of two exercise plans (recommended national guideline for exercise or high intensity intermittent training (HIIT). All participants were given detailed guidelines for the chosen diet and exercise plan.
- The IF plan was the most popular, with 54% of participants choosing it, followed by Mediterranean diet (27%) and Paleo (18%).
- Only half of the participants who choose the IF or Mediterranean diet were still following it at 12 months and one-third of the Paleo dieters were following the plan.
- Adherence to any diet rapidly declines over time.
- No matter which diet was followed, outcomes for weight loss, blood pressure, or blood sugar were modest.
- There is difficulty following diet in a free-living environment without intensive ongoing support.
And, this is why it pays read beyond the headline and to dig deeper to get the real story.
All of this made me think of a recent presentation from Ted Kyle, founder of ConscienHealth and LeeAnn Kindness, of Tivity Health (Nutrisystem is one of their products) on the heterogeneity of obesity. According to Kindness, “77% of adults are actively trying to improve their health and more than 120 million are actively trying to lose weight.” Over the past 12 months, consumers have tried over 18 different dietary patterns to improve their health or lose weight. Yet, as was shown in the study on the three diet patterns, it is hard to stick with the plan.
So, what is “best?” Ted Kyle reminds us that the responses to diets vary. Study data usually report outcomes as averages of aggregate data, and we all know what an average is…that means that some people will lose weight on a specific plan while some people gain weight. He showed data from a study called DIETFITS on low carb vs low fat diets…. some people lost weight on both plans, but some people gained weight on both plans. “The same is true for any diet, drug regimen, or surgical intervention and the bottom line is one size doesn’t fit all,” says Kyle.
That is why programs like Nutrisystem are recognizing that “sustainable weight management requires a personalized approach, considering age, gender, food preferences, and goals,” says Kindness.
When choosing a plan for lifelong health, find something that works for you and seek the advice of a health professional who can help guide your choice and stick with the plan.
For more information on healthy food and exercise choices, check out Food & Fitness After 50, available at Amazon and other booksellers.
Disclosure: I attended a conference that paid for my travel expenses and the session mentioned was one of many over four days of education. I was not asked to write this post and was not compensated for it.
Copyright © 2019 [Christine Rosenbloom]. All Rights Reserved.